What is Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD) and how does it manifest itself?

In this article, Dr Hrishikesh Pai one of the best IVF doctors in India who provides PCOD treatment in Mumbai talks about “What is Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD) and how does it manifest itself?”

Dr Hrishikesh Pai is a highly qualified and experienced fertility specialist and one of the best gynaecologists in Mumbai. He has pioneered many innovative techniques and procedures in gynaecology and infertility, for which he has been honoured with 50 plus awards.

Dr Hrishikesh Pai, Mumbai based IVF Specialist notes that, In women between the ages of 12 and 45 years, polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD), is a highly frequent disorder that affects 5-10% of the population.

Women who suffer from this condition have an imbalance in their hormones. It has the potential to cause problems with her monthly periods as well as make it difficult for her to become pregnant.

The most prominent symptoms are the absence of ovulation, irregular periods, acne, and hirsutism. Untreated, it can result in insulin-resistant diabetes, obesity and elevated cholesterol levels, which can contribute to heart disease.

What causes Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD) and how can it be prevented?

Dr Hrishikesh Pai from Mumbai opines that, Normally, the ovaries produce female sex hormones and a small number of male sex hormones(androgens), although this is not always the case .

During each menstrual cycle, these hormones aid in the regulation of the correct growth of eggs in the ovaries.

The imbalance of these sex hormones is thought to be the cause of polycystic ovary syndrome. When a woman has PCOS, her body begins to produce somewhat more androgens.

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Patients experience a decrease in ovulation, get acne and an increase in facial and body hair as a result of this.

Follicles are sacs that carry eggs that are found within the ovaries. Single or more eggs are discharged with each menstrual cycle, in most cases. Ovulation is the term used to describe this process.

This condition is characterised by the failure of the eggs in these follicles to develop and thus the failure of the ovaries to release them.

Instead, they can cause very tiny cysts to grow in the ovary, giving rise to the term “polycystic ovary.”

PCOS appears to be hereditary, which means that the likelihood of developing it is higher if other women in the family have PCOS, irregular periods, or diabetes.

The following are some of the most common symptoms of PCOD/PCOS:

  • Acne
  • Gaining weight and having difficulty in decreasing weight
  • Face and body hair that has grown in excess. Women frequently have thicker, darker facial hair, as well as more hair on their chests, bellies, and backs
  • On the scalp, there is thinning hair
  • Periods that are not regular. Women with PCOS frequently have fewer than nine menstrual cycles per year. Some women do not have periods at all, while others have quite an intense bleeding.
  • Obstacles to pregnancy. Many women who suffer from PCOS have difficulty becoming pregnant (infertility)
  • Depression

It is possible that serum androgens, luteinizing hormone, and other hormone estimations will be required in some cases, notes Dr Hrishikesh Pai, Mumbai’s best PCOD Specialist.

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Complications associated with PCOD/PCOS

  • Endometrial cancer is at an increased risk
  • Infertility is a medical condition that affects the ability to conceive (early treatment of polycystic ovary disease can help prevent infertility or increase the chance of having a healthy pregnancy)
  • Chronic diseases associated with obesity (BMI larger than 30 and waist circumference greater than 35) include high blood pressure, heart disease, and diabetes
  • Increased risk of breast cancer is a possibility


The medical therapy of PCOD/PCOS focuses on addressing your specific concerns, such as infertility, hirsutism, acne, or obesity, rather than on the condition itself.

  • Blood glucose levels are being brought down
  • Fertility has been restored
  • Menstrual regularity is restored, as is the prevention of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer in the uterus
  • Obesity reduction (which can be challenging) has been demonstrated to be beneficial in the treatment of diabetes, hypertension, and excessive cholesterol levels.
  • Even a small weight loss of 5% of total body weight has been demonstrated to be beneficial in the treatment of hormonal imbalances and in the prevention of infertility.

The following medications are used to treat the aberrant hormones and menstrual cycles associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome:

  • Menstrual periods become more regular as a result of the use of birth control tablets or progesterone pills
  • Taking Metformin, a medicine that enhances the body’s sensitivity to insulin can help to alleviate the symptoms of PCOS and may even help to restore normal menstrual cycles. It may also be beneficial for some ladies who are trying to lose weight
  • After being treated with clomiphene citrate, the egg becomes mature and ready to be released. Women may require this or other fertility medicines in order to become pregnant at times.
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