The topic of this article will revolve around the Kisspeptin-10 peptide and studies into its potential role in metabolism and reproduction. If this topic sparks your curiosity, keep reading. Let’s dive right in!
Kisspeptin is a naturally produced peptide, which is considered involved in crucial hormone signaling processes throughout adolescence and reproduction. Studies suggest mood and behavior modification, angiogenesis promotion, and modulation of renal function are additional postulated effects. In addition to these and its potential anti-tumor properties, research suggests Kisspeptin has been discovered in the brain. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) regulation is another area of expertise and research interest.
Specific neurons in the brain’s hypothalamus are considered responsible for synthesizing and secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. This hormone is produced in the brain and transported by small blood arteries to the pituitary gland, which promotes the synthesis of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones. These hormones enter the bloodstream and stimulate and sustain reproductive processes in the testes and ovaries.
Kisspeptin Peptide: What is it?
According to research, in the early stages of puberty, sex hormone development is regulated by a family of neuroendocrine peptides called kisspeptins. Studies suggest Kisspeptins cause the production of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH). Kisspeptin receptor mutations have been linked to developmental issues. The potential of Kisspeptins has been speculated in the context of increasing HPA axis-mediated endogenous synthesis of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).
Consequently, studies suggest it may activate Leydig cells to make testosterone without causing the hypogonadism seen with exogenous testosterone. In addition to obesity and diabetes, the expression of Kiss1 has changed in different energy imbalance states. In addition, it has been suggested by scientific professionals to possibly counteract hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Moreover, it has been speculated to have physiological properties, such as assisting in the implantation and maturation of eggs during reproduction and protecting against ectopic pregnancies. It may also promote the breakdown of pregnenolone and the creation of Kisspeptin – angiotensin2 in the kidneys, increasing aldosterone production, as studies suggest.
How Does Kisspeptin Peptide Function?
Research suggests Kisspeptin seems to regulate GnRH secretion, pulses, or discharge by acting on the terminals of GnRH neurons. Moreover, Kisspeptin has been speculated in other research to elevate GnRH mRNA and secretion. The KNDy neurons, which also are considered to secrete the hormones dynorphin and neurokinin B, are considered responsible for the release of Kisspeptin. KNDy neurons are crucial in controlling GnRH surges produced by the pituitary gland. Although not fully understood, these two hormones may have a role in initiating Kisspeptin secretion, as suggested by preliminary studies.
Kisspeptin Peptide and Cancer
The complex multistep process of cancer genesis and evolution is only partially understood, despite advances in the knowledge of the molecular principles behind unchecked cell proliferation, invasiveness, and metastasis. Inhibiting molecules triggered in cancer metastasis is a rapidly developing field of study. Studies suggest KiSS-1, like other known antimetastatic genes, may play a role in the metastatic cascade by limiting metastases’ ability to spread. In addition, researchers speculate a more aggressive phenotype has been linked to reduced KiSS-1 protein production by tumor cells. Kisspeptins (Kp-10, -13, and -14), endogenous agonists for the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR54), are encoded by the KiSS-1 gene. This gene produces a 145-amino-acid protein that is generated via proteolytic cleavage. Scientists hypothesize KiSS-1’s potential anticancer activity was linked to its potential to diminish metastasis and intratumoral microvessel development by suppressing cell proliferation, migration, and invasion.
Kisspeptin, Metabolism, and Reproduction
Studies suggest the neuropeptide Kisspeptin may be essential to properly function the HPG axis, which links the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland and the ovaries. Researchers speculate the hypothalamic rostral periventricular region of the third ventricle (RP3V) and the arcuate nucleus (ARC) are the primary sources of Kisspeptin. These neurons secrete GnRH because they project to and activate GnRH neurons (through the kisspeptin receptor, Kiss1r) in the hypothalamus. It is generally speculated that the ARC Kisspeptin neurons operate as the GnRH pulse generator since gonadal sex hormones activate Kisspeptin neurons in the RP3V while inhibiting Kisspeptin neurons in the ARC. Energy balance, thought to facilitate effects like inhibiting fertility in subjects with under or severe over-nutrition, has been a specific area of interest in recent research on afferent inputs to Kisspeptin neurons due to Kisspeptin’s potential on the HPG axis.
Scientists hypothesize that Kisspeptin may be increasingly linked to direct effects on energy homeostasis and metabolic rate. Kiss1r-knockout (KO) mice appear to gain weight and burn fewer calories than wild-type mice. Kiss1r is expressed in adipose tissue, and perhaps brown adipose tissue (BAT) and Kiss1rKO mice may have decreased energy expenditure, although the processes behind these results are not yet understood. With rising scientific data of Kisspeptin potentially affecting sexual behavior, research is now looking at the potential of Kisspeptin signaling on behavior; additional exploration of putative neural pathways is necessary.
Buy Kisspeptin online is restricted to usage in research and educational institutes. Biotech Peptides is a great resource for licensed researchers looking to purchase peptides for use in laboratory settings. Remember that none of the substances discussed here are approved for ingestion by humans or animals. Compounds used in scientific research should never be used outside of a laboratory. It is forbidden to make a personal introduction of any type.
- Harter, C. J. L., Kavanagh, G. S., & Smith, J. T. (2018). The role of kisspeptin neurons in reproduction and metabolism, Journal of Endocrinology, 238(3), R173-R183. Retrieved May 20, 2022, from https://joe.bioscientifica.com/view/journals/joe/238/3/JOE-18-0108.xml
- George JT, Veldhuis JD, Roseweir AK, Newton CL, Faccenda E, Millar RP, Anderson RA: Kisspeptin-10 is a potent stimulator of LH and increases pulse frequency in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011;96:E1228-E1236
- Ciaramella, V., Della Corte, C. M., Ciardiello, F., & Morgillo, F. (2018). Kisspeptin and Cancer: Molecular Interaction, Biological Functions, and Future Perspectives. Frontiers in endocrinology, 9, 115. https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2018.00115
- Dhillo WS, Chaudhri OB, Patterson M, Thompson EL, Murphy KG, Badman MK, McGowan BM, Amber V, Patel S, Ghatei MA, Bloom SR: Kisspeptin-54 stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis in human males. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90:6609-6615